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Прочитайте информацию для студентов, только что приехавших в летнюю школу. Установите соответствие между заголовками A-F и пронумерованными абзацами текста
1. People have lived on our planet for many years. We may live on different continents and in different countries, but we all depend on our planet, on the sun, on animals and plants around us. We must take care of Earth but not destruct wildlife. Many species of animals and birds are disappearing nowadays. We cut down trees to make furniture, but we forget that people can’t live without trees and plants. Every little creature or thing oh Earth plays its own part and makes our home unique.
2. One of the biggest eco problems is pollution. The main reason of pollution is rubbish Most of our rubbish goes to big holes in the ground, called ’dumps’. But dumps are very dangerous for our life, because they are full of rats, which can carry infections away from dumps. Another way to get rid of rubbish is to burn it. But the fires make poisons, which go into the air and pollute it. This is the propel scientists should get interested in. Such researchers are worth spending money on.
3. The Royal Society for the prevention of cruelty to animals (the RSPCA) tries to protect animals from bad use. It operates big nation campaigns aimed at lost pets and circus animals. The World Wildlife Fund (The WWF) rescued several species of animals mammals as well as birds. These organizations also helped to create more than 25C National parks. Greenpeace began its work 20 years ago from saving whales. And now Greenpeace is a world-famous organization, which saves plants, animals and people.
4. Every year world industry pollutes the atmosphere with about 1000 million tons ol dust and harmful substances. Many cities suffer from smog. Vast forests are cut down and burn in fire. Their disappearance upsets the oxygen balance. As a result some rare species of animals, birds, fish and plants disappear forever, a number of lakes and rivers dry up. The pollution of air and the world destruction of the ozone layer is the result of man’s careless interaction with nature, a sign of ecological crises.
5. Numerous conferences have been held to discuss questions of ecologically pool regions including the Aral Sea, the South Urals, Kuzbass, Donbass, Seiriipalatsinsfc and Chernobyl. An international environmental research center has been set up on Lake Baikal. Scientists are also doing much to preserve the environment. But these are only the initial steps that must be carried forward to protect not only for the sake of the present but for the future generations.
Прочитайте текст. Определите, какие из приведённых утверждений А5-А8 соответствуют содержанию текста (1 — True), какие не соответствуют (2 — False) и о чём в тексте не сказано, то есть на основании текста нельзя дать ни положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (3 — Not stated).
One of the most significant dates during the reign of the Spanish Catholic Monarchs was 12th October 1492: the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus.
The fact that Christopher Columbus (who was not originally Spanish) appealed to a foreign court to offer his services proved that the discovery of America was not unexpected.
Portugal and Spain were well-advanced in the exploration of overseas mercantile routes and Sevilla, a wealthy Spanish city, was by then an important commercial centre. We know that the African routes were closed to Spain in favour of Portugal. In 1479, Alfonso V of Portugal recognized the rights of Spain over the Canary Islands, while Spain ^recognized the rights of Portugal over the Azores, Cape Verde and Madeira.
The Canary Islands were an excellent bridgehead for alternate routes. Unified Spain possessed in 1492 a powerful war machine, a solid economy, naval experience including the exploration of trade routes and notable scientific-technical potential mathematicians, geographers, astronomers and shipbuilders who had been formed in a melting-pot of three cultures: Jews, Muslims and Christians. Its only rival was its neighbour, Portugal, which, as we know, had put a stop to Spanish expansion in Africa.
Columbus’ offer was rapidly accepted, but during his journey to Asia his caravels unexpectedly came across the American continent.
The Spanish were especially well prepared by history to conquer, occupy, populate and exploit new lands and assimilate new people. America thus became the new frontier-land for those people used to its ways and with the military, diplomats and administrative arms at their disposal to face the challenge. By the middle of the 16th century, they had settled in the two most important viceroyalties, Mexico on the Atlantic, and Peru on the Pacific.
A5 Sevilla was the largest sea port and trade center of the world.
A6 In the
A7 By 1492 Spain had serious resourses to expand its world influence
A8 The Spanish were not ready to settle on the newly open lands.
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